The Maypole of Merry Mount by Nathaniel Hawthorne with PDF

The Maypole of Merry Mount by Nathaniel Hawthorne

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, unfolds within the colonial backdrop of Merry Mount, a place where revelry and celebration challenge the strict Puritan norms. This short story explores the clash between the joyous, free-spirited inhabitants of Merry Mount and the austere Puritan settlers. Against the somber Puritan landscape, the Maypole stands as a symbol of liberty and uninhibited revelry. As tensions rise between the two communities, Hawthorne weaves a tale that delves into themes of morality, societal norms, and the perennial struggle between individual expression and the rigidity of collective beliefs.

The Maypole of Merry Mount
The Maypole of Merry Mount

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Table of contents – The Maypole of Merry Mount

  1. The Maypole of Merry Mount by Nathaniel Hawthorne – Full Text
  2. Plot, Summary and Analysis – The Maypole of Merry Mount
  3. The Maypole of Merry Mount – Full Text – PDF
  4. Analysis PDF
  5. Theme PDF

The Maypole of Merry Mount by Nathaniel Hawthorne – Full Text

The Maypole of Merry Mount by by Nathaniel Hawthorne
The Maypole of Merry Mount by by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Bright were the days at Merry Mount, when the Maypole was the banner staff of that gay colony! They who reared it, should their banner be triumphant, were to pour sunshine over New England’s rugged hills, and scatter flower seeds throughout the soil. Jollity and gloom were contending for an empire. Midsummer eve had come, bringing deep verdure to the forest, and roses in her lap, of a more vivid hue than the tender buds of Spring. But May, or her mirthful spirit, dwelt all the year round at Merry Mount, sporting with the Summer months, and revelling with Autumn, and basking in the glow of Winter’s fireside. Through a world of toil and care she flitted with a dreamlike smile, and came hither to find a home among the lightsome hearts of Merry Mount.

Never had the Maypole been so gayly decked as at sunset on midsummer eve. This venerated emblem was a pine-tree, which had preserved the slender grace of youth, while it equalled the loftiest height of the old wood monarchs. From its top streamed a silken banner, colored like the rainbow. Down nearly to the ground the pole was dressed with birchen boughs, and others of the liveliest green, and some with silvery leaves, fastened by ribbons that fluttered in fantastic knots of twenty different colors, but no sad ones. Garden flowers, and blossoms of the wilderness, laughed gladly forth amid the verdure, so fresh and dewy that they must have grown by magic on that happy pine-tree. Where this green and flowery splendor terminated, the shaft of the Maypole was stained with the seven brilliant hues of the banner at its top. On the lowest green bough hung an abundant wreath of roses, some that had been gathered in the sunniest spots of the forest, and others, of still richer blush, which the colonists had reared from English seed. O, people of the Golden Age, the chief of your husbandry was to raise flowers!

But what was the wild throng that stood hand in hand about the Maypole? It could not be that the fauns and nymphs, when driven from their classic groves and homes of ancient fable, had sought refuge, as all the persecuted did, in the fresh woods of the West. These were Gothic monsters, though perhaps of Grecian ancestry. On the shoulders of a comely youth uprose the head and branching antlers of a stag; a second, human in all other points, had the grim visage of a wolf; a third, still with the trunk and limbs of a mortal man, showed the beard and horns of a venerable he-goat. There was the likeness of a bear erect, brute in all but his hind legs, which were adorned with pink silk stockings. And here again, almost as wondrous, stood a real bear of the dark forest, lending each of his fore paws to the grasp of a human hand, and as ready for the dance as any in that circle. His inferior nature rose half way, to meet his companions as they stooped.

Other faces wore the similitude of man or woman, but distorted or extravagant, with red noses pendulous before their mouths, which seemed of awful depth, and stretched from ear to ear in an eternal fit of laughter. Here might be seen the Salvage Man, well known in heraldry, hairy as a baboon, and girdled with green leaves. By his side, a noble figure, but still a counterfeit, appeared an Indian hunter, with feathery crest and wampum belt. Many of this strange company wore foolscaps, and had little bells appended to their garments, tinkling with a silvery sound, responsive to the inaudible music of their gleesome spirits. Some youths and maidens were of soberer garb, yet well maintained their places in the irregular throng by the expression of wild revelry upon their features. Such were the colonists of Merry Mount, as they stood in the broad smile of sunset round their venerated Maypole.

Had a wanderer, bewildered in the melancholy forest, heard their mirth, and stolen a half-affrighted glance, he might have fancied them the crew of Comus, some already transformed to brutes, some midway between man and beast, and the others rioting in the flow of tipsy jollity that foreran the change. But a band of Puritans, who watched the scene, invisible themselves, compared the masques to those devils and ruined souls with whom their superstition peopled the black wilderness.

Within the ring of monsters appeared the two airiest forms that had ever trodden on any more solid footing than a purple and golden cloud. One was a youth in glistening apparel, with a scarf of the rainbow pattern crosswise on his breast. His right hand held a gilded staff, the ensign of high dignity among the revellers, and his left grasped the slender fingers of a fair maiden, not less gayly decorated than himself. Bright roses glowed in contrast with the dark and glossy curls of each, and were scattered round their feet, or had sprung up spontaneously there. Behind this lightsome couple, so close to the Maypole that its boughs shaded his jovial face, stood the figure of an English priest, canonically dressed, yet decked with flowers, in heathen fashion, and wearing a chaplet of the native vine leaves. By the riot of his rolling eye, and the pagan decorations of his holy garb, he seemed the wildest monster there, and the very Comus of the crew.

“Votaries of the Maypole,” cried the flower-decked priest, “merrily, all day long, have the woods echoed to your mirth. But be this your merriest hour, my hearts! Lo, here stand the Lord and Lady of the May, whom I, a clerk of Oxford, and high priest of Merry Mount, am presently to join in holy matrimony. Up with your nimble spirits, ye morris-dancers, green men, and glee maidens, bears and wolves, and horned gentlemen! Come; a chorus now, rich with the old mirth of Merry England, and the wilder glee of this fresh forest; and then a dance, to show the youthful pair what life is made of, and how airily they should go through it! All ye that love the Maypole, lend your voices to the nuptial song of the Lord and Lady of the May!”

This wedlock was more serious than most affairs of Merry Mount, where jest and delusion, trick and fantasy, kept up a continual carnival. The Lord and Lady of the May, though their titles must be laid down at sunset, were really and truly to be partners for the dance of life, beginning the measure that same bright eve. The wreath of roses, that hung from the lowest green bough of the Maypole, had been twined for them, and would be thrown over both their heads, in symbol of their flowery union. When the priest had spoken, therefore, a riotous uproar burst from the rout of monstrous figures.

“Begin you the stave, reverend Sir,” cried they all; “and never did the woods ring to such a merry peal as we of the Maypole shall send up!”

Immediately a prelude of pipe, cithern, and viol, touched with practised minstrelsy, began to play from a neighboring thicket, in such a mirthful cadence that the boughs of the Maypole quivered to the sound. But the May Lord, he of the gilded staff, chancing to look into his Lady’s eyes, was wonder struck at the almost pensive glance that met his own.

“Edith,sweet Lady of the May,” whispered he reproachfully, “is yon wreath of roses a garland to hang above our graves, that you look so sad? O, Edith, this is our golden time! Tarnish it not by any pensive shadow of the mind; for it may be that nothing of futurity will be brighter than the mere remembrance of what is now passing.”

“That was the very thought that saddened me! How came it in your mind too?” said Edith, in a still lower tone than he, for it was high treason to be sad at Merry Mount. “Therefore do I sigh amid this festive music. And besides, dear Edgar, I struggle as with a dream, and fancy that these shapes of our jovial friends are visionary, and their mirth unreal, and that we are no true Lord and Lady of the May. What is the mystery in my heart?”

Just then, as if a spell had loosened them, down came a little shower of withering rose leaves from the Maypole. Alas, for the young lovers! No sooner had their hearts glowed with real passion than they were sensible of something vague and unsubstantial in their former pleasures, and felt a dreary presentiment of inevitable change. From the moment that they truly loved, they had subjected themselves to earth’s doom of care and sorrow, and troubled joy, and had no more a home at Merry Mount. That was Edith’s mystery. Now leave we the priest to marry them, and the masquers to sport round the Maypole, till the last sunbeam be withdrawn from its summit, and the shadows of the forest mingle gloomily in the dance. Meanwhile, we may discover who these gay people were.

Two hundred years ago, and more, the old world and its inhabitants became mutually weary of each other. Men voyaged by thousands to the West: some to barter glass beads, and such like jewels, for the furs of the Indian hunter; some to conquer virgin empires; and one stern band to pray. But none of these motives had much weight with the colonists of Merry Mount. Their leaders were men who had sported so long with life, that when Thought and Wisdom came, even these unwelcome guests were led astray by the crowd of vanities which they should have put to flight. Erring Thought and perverted Wisdom were made to put on masques, and play the fool. The men of whom we speak, after losing the heart’s fresh gayety, imagined a wild philosophy of pleasure, and came hither to act out their latest day-dream. They gathered followers from all that giddy tribe whose whole life is like the festal days of soberer men.

In their train were minstrels, not unknown in London streets: wandering players, whose theatres had been the halls of noblemen; mummers, rope-dancers, and mountebanks, who would long be missed at wakes, church ales, and fairs; in a word, mirth makers of every sort, such as abounded in that age, but now began to be discountenanced by the rapid growth of Puritanism. Light had their footsteps been on land, and as lightly they came across the sea. Many had been maddened by their previous troubles into a gay despair; others were as madly gay in the flush of youth, like the May Lord and his Lady; but whatever might be the quality of their mirth, old and young were gay at Merry Mount. The young deemed themselves happy. The elder spirits, if they knew that mirth was but the counterfeit of happiness, yet followed the false shadow wilfully, because at least her garments glittered brightest. Sworn triflers of a lifetime, they would not venture among the sober truths of life not even to be truly blest.

All the hereditary pastimes of Old England were transplanted hither. The King of Christmas was duly crowned, and the Lord of Misrule bore potent sway. On the Eve of St. John, they felled whole acres of the forest to make bonfires, and danced by the blaze all night, crowned with garlands, and throwing flowers into the flame. At harvest time, though their crop was of the smallest, they made an image with the sheaves of Indian corn, and wreathed it with autumnal garlands, and bore it home triumphantly. But what chiefly characterized the colonists of Merry Mount was their veneration for the Maypole. It has made their true history a poet’s tale. Spring decked the hallowed emblem with young blossoms and fresh green boughs; Summer brought roses of the deepest blush, and the perfected foliage of the forest; Autumn enriched it with that red and yellow gorgeousness which converts each wildwood leaf into a painted flower; and Winter silvered it with sleet, and hung it round with icicles, till it flashed in the cold sunshine, itself a frozen sunbeam. Thus each alternate season did homage to the Maypole, and paid it a tribute of its own richest splendor. Its votaries danced round it, once, at least, in every month; sometimes they called it their religion, or their altar; but always, it was the banner staff of Merry Mount.

Unfortunately, there were men in the new world of a sterner faith than these Maypole worshippers. Not far from Merry Mount was a settlement of Puritans, most dismal wretches, who said their prayers before daylight, and then wrought in the forest or the corn-field till evening made it prayer time again. Their weapons were always at hand to shoot down the straggling savage. When they met in conclave, it was never to keep up the old English mirth, but to hear sermons three hours long, or to proclaim bounties on the heads of wolves and the scalps of Indians. Their festivals were fast days, and their chief pastime the singing of psalms. Wo to the youth or maiden who did but dream of a dance! The selectman nodded to the constable; and there sat the light-heeled reprobate in the stocks; or if he danced, it was round the whipping-post, which might be termed the Puritan Maypole.

A party of these grim Puritans, toiling through the difficult woods, each with a horseload of iron armor to burden his footsteps, would sometimes draw near the sunny precincts of Merry Mount. There were the silken colonists, sporting round their Maypole; perhaps teaching a bear to dance, or striving to communicate their mirth to the grave Indian; or masquerading in the skins of deer and wolves, which they had hunted for that especial purpose. Often, the whole colony were playing at blindman’s buff, magistrates and all, with their eyes bandaged, except a single scapegoat, whom the blinded sinners pursued by the tinkling of the bells at his garments. Once, it is said, they were seen following a flower-decked corpse, with merriment and festive music, to his grave. But did the dead man laugh? In their quietest times, they sang ballads and told tales, for the edification of their pious visitors; or perplexed them with juggling tricks; or grinned at them through horse collars; and when sport itself grew wearisome, they made game of their own stupidity, and began a yawning match.

At the very least of these enormities, the men of iron shook their heads and frowned so darkly that the revellers looked up, imagining that a momentary cloud had overcast the sunshine, which was to be perpetual there. On the other hand, the Puritans affirmed that, when a psalm was pealing from their place of worship, the echo which the forest sent them back seemed often like the chorus of a jolly catch, closing with a roar of laughter. Who but the fiend, and his bond slaves, the crew of Merry Mount, had thus disturbed them? In due time, a feud arose, stern and bitter on one side, and as serious on the other as anything could be among such light spirits as had sworn allegiance to the Maypole. The future complexion of New England was involved in this important quarrel. Should the grizzly saints establish their jurisdiction over the gay sinners, then would their spirits darken all the clime, and make it a land of clouded visages, of hard toil, of sermon and psalm forever. But should the banner staff of Merry Mount be fortunate, sunshine would break upon the hills, and flowers would beautify the forest, and late posterity do homage to the Maypole.

After these authentic passages from history, we return to the nuptials of the Lord and Lady of the May. Alas! we have delayed too long, and must darken our tale too suddenly. As we glance again at the Maypole, a solitary sunbeam is fading from the summit, and leaves only a faint, golden tinge blended with the hues of the rainbow banner. Even that dim light is now withdrawn, relinquishing the whole domain of Merry Mount to the evening gloom, which has rushed so instantaneously from the black surrounding woods. But some of these black shadows have rushed forth in human shape.

Yes, with the setting sun, the last day of mirth had passed from Merry Mount. The ring of gay masquers was disordered and broken; the stag lowered his antlers in dismay; the wolf grew weaker than a lamb; the bells of the morris-dancers tinkled with tremulous affright. The Puritans had played a characteristic part in the Maypole mummeries. Their darksome figures were intermixed with the wild shapes of their foes, and made the scene a picture of the moment, when waking thoughts start up amid the scattered fantasies of a dream. The leader of the hostile party stood in the centre of the circle, while the rout of monsters cowered around him, like evil spirits in the presence of a dread magician. No fantastic foolery could look him in the face. So stern was the energy of his aspect, that the whole man, visage, frame, and soul, seemed wrought of iron, gifted with life and thought, yet all of one substance with his headpiece and breastplate. It was the Puritan of Puritans; it was Endicott himself!

“Stand off, priest of Baal!” said he, with a grim frown, and laying no reverent hand upon the surplice. “I know thee, Blackstone! Thou art the man who couldst not abide the rule even of thine own corrupted church, and hast come hither to preach iniquity, and to give example of it in thy life. But now shall it be seen that the Lord hath sanctified this wilderness for his peculiar people. Wo unto them that would defile it! And first, for this flower-decked abomination, the altar of thy worship!”

And with his keen sword Endicott assaulted the hallowed Maypole. Nor long did it resist his arm. It groaned with a dismal sound; it showered leaves and rosebuds upon the remorseless enthusiast; and finally, with all its green boughs and ribbons and flowers, symbolic of departed pleasures, down fell the banner staff of Merry Mount. As it sank, tradition says, the evening sky grew darker, and the woods threw forth a more sombre shadow.

“There,” cried Endicott, looking triumphantly on his work, “there lies the only Maypole in New England! The thought is strong within me that, by its fall, is shadowed forth the fate of light and idle mirth makers, amongst us and our posterity. Amen, saith John Endicott.”

*Did Governor Endicott speak less positively, we should suspect a mistake here. The Rev. Mr. Blackstone, though an eccentric, is not known to have been an immoral man. We rather doubt his identity with the priest of Merry Mount.

“Amen!” echoed his followers.

But the votaries of the Maypole gave one groan for their idol. At the sound, the Puritan leader glanced at the crew of Comus, each a figure of broad mirth, yet, at this moment, strangely expressive of sorrow and dismay.

“Valiant captain,” quoth Peter Palfrey, the Ancient of the band, “what order shall be taken with the prisoners?”

“I thought not to repent me of cutting down a Maypole,” replied Endicott, “yet now I could find in my heart to plant it again, and give each of these bestial pagans one other dance round their idol. It would have served rarely for a whipping-post!”

“But there are pine-trees enow,” suggested the lieutenant.

“True, good Ancient,” said the leader. “Wherefore, bind the heathen crew, and bestow on them a small matter of stripes apiece, as earnest of our future justice. Set some of the rogues in the stocks to rest themselves, so soon as Providence shall bring us to one of our own well-ordered settlements, where such accommodations may be found. Further penalties, such as branding and cropping of ears, shall be thought of hereafter.”

“How many stripes for the priest?” inquired Ancient Palfrey.

“None as yet,” answered Endicott, bending his iron frown upon the culprit. “It must be for the Great and General Court to determine, whether stripes and long imprisonment, and other grievous penalty, may atone for his transgressions. Let him look to himself! For such as violate our civil order, it may be permitted us to show mercy. But wo to the wretch that troubleth our religion!”

“And this dancing bear,” resumed the officer. “Must he share the stripes of his fellows?”

“Shoot him through the head!” said the energetic Puritan. “I suspect witchcraft in the beast.”

“Here be a couple of shining ones,” continued Peter Palfrey, pointing his weapon at the Lord and Lady of the May. “They seem to be of high station among these misdoers. Methinks their dignity will not be fitted with less than a double share of stripes.”

Endicott rested on his sword, and closely surveyed the dress and aspect of the hapless pair. There they stood, pale, downcast, and apprehensive. Yet there was an air of mutual support, and of pure affection, seeking aid and giving it, that showed them to be man and wife, with the sanction of a priest upon their love. The youth, in the peril of the moment, had dropped his gilded staff, and thrown his arm about the Lady of the May, who leaned against his breast, too lightly to burden him, but with weight enough to express that their destinies were linked together, for good or evil. They looked first at each other, and then into the grim captain’s face. There they stood, in the first hour of wedlock, while the idle pleasures, of which their companions were the emblems, had given place to the sternest cares of life, personified by the dark Puritans. But never had their youthful beauty seemed so pure and high as when its glow was chastened by adversity.

“Youth,” said Endicott, “ye stand in an evil case, thou and thy maiden wife. Make ready presently, for I am minded that ye shall both have a token to remember your wedding day!”

“Stern man,” cried the May Lord, “how can I move thee? Were the means at hand, I would resist to the death. Being powerless, I entreat! Do with me as thou wilt, but let Edith go untouched!”

“Not so,” replied the immitigable zealot. “We are not wont to show an idle courtesy to that sex, which requireth the stricter discipline. What sayest thou, maid? Shall thy silken bridegroom suffer thy share of the penalty, besides his own?”

“Be it death,” said Edith, “and lay it all on me!”

Truly, as Endicott had said, the poor lovers stood in a woful case. Their foes were triumphant, their friends captive and abased, their home desolate, the benighted wilderness around them, and a rigorous destiny, in the shape of the Puritan leader, their only guide. Yet the deepening twilight could not altogether conceal that the iron man was softened; he smiled at the fair spectacle of early love; he almost sighed for the inevitable blight of early hopes.

“The troubles of life have come hastily on this young couple,” observed Endicott. “We will see how they comport themselves under their present trials ere we burden them with greater. If, among the spoil, there be any garments of a more decent fashion, let them be put upon this May Lord and his Lady, instead of their glistening vanities. Look to it, some of you.”

“And shall not the youth’s hair be cut?” asked Peter Palfrey, looking with abhorrence at the love-lock and long glossy curls of the young man.

“Crop it forthwith, and that in the true pumpkin-shell fashion,” answered the captain. “Then bring them along with us, but more gently than their fellows. There be qualities in the youth, which may make him valiant to fight, and sober to toil, and pious to pray; and in the maiden, that may fit her to become a mother in our Israel, bringing up babes in better nurture than her own hath been. Nor think ye, young ones, that they are the happiest, even in our lifetime of a moment, who mis-spend it in dancing round a Maypole!”

And Endicott, the severest Puritan of all who laid the rock foundation of New England, lifted the wreath of roses from the ruin of the Maypole, and threw it, with his own gauntleted hand, over the heads of the Lord and Lady of the May. It was a deed of prophecy. As the moral gloom of the world overpowers all systematic gayety, even so was their home of wild mirth made desolate amid the sad forest. They returned to it no more. But as their flowery garland was wreathed of the brightest roses that had grown there, so, in the tie that united them, were intertwined all the purest and best of their early joys. They went heavenward, supporting each other along the difficult path which it was their lot to tread, and never wasted one regretful thought on the vanities of Merry Mount.

The Maypole of Merry Mount – Questions and Answers – Set 1

The Maypole of Merry Mount – Character Sketches

1. Edgar: Edgar, a joyful inhabitant of Merry Mount, embodies the spirit of love and celebration. His marriage to Edith becomes a symbol of personal freedom and defiance against Puritan strictures. Edgar’s character reflects the individual’s capacity for love and the pursuit of happiness in the face of societal opposition.

2. Edith: Edith, spirited and expressive, complements Edgar’s character. As a bride at Merry Mount, she symbolizes the celebration of love and personal liberty. Edith’s resilience in the face of Puritan disapproval highlights the theme of individuality and the pursuit of happiness despite societal constraints.

3. Endicott: Endicott, the Puritan leader, initially condemns the festivities at Merry Mount. His change of heart, sparing the Maypole, adds complexity to his character. Endicott embodies the internal conflict between Puritan principles and the recognition of human emotions, illustrating the nuanced nature of moral judgments.

4. The Inhabitants of Merry Mount: The revelers at Merry Mount collectively represent a community that embraces joy and freedom. Despite external judgments, they embody the complexity of human nature, challenging stereotypes and showcasing the multidimensional aspects of individuals living outside conventional societal norms.

5. The Puritans: The Puritans collectively epitomize a society governed by strict moral codes. Their disapproval of Merry Mount reflects a commitment to conformity. Yet, the characters within the Puritan community, like Endicott, demonstrate internal struggles and highlight the limitations of rigid moral frameworks.

The Maypole of Merry Mount –  Summary

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” unfolds in the early colonial period, presenting a captivating tale of cultural collision between the Puritans and the boisterous inhabitants of Merry Mount. At the center of Merry Mount’s exuberant celebrations stands the Maypole, a symbol of love, freedom, and joy that epitomizes the contrasting values of the two communities.

Edgar and Edith, emblematic figures of love and defiance, marry amidst the festive revelry, challenging the strict moral codes of the Puritans. This union becomes a focal point for the narrative, emphasizing the theme of individual expression in the face of societal norms. The Puritans, led by the stern Endicott, initially condemn the Maypole and its joyous festivities as immoral, a stark reflection of their commitment to religious conformity.

Endicott’s character adds complexity to the narrative. Initially ordering the destruction of the Maypole, he later has a change of heart, sparing it. This shift showcases the internal struggle within him, acknowledging the human emotions and capacity for love that exist beneath the veneer of Puritan piety. However, despite this brief reprieve, tragedy befalls Merry Mount.

The Puritans, unable to reconcile with the unrestrained merrymaking, capture and imprison the inhabitants of Merry Mount. This somber turn of events underscores the irreconcilable differences between the two communities and serves as a commentary on the clash between opposing values in a historical context marked by rigid beliefs and cultural discord.

Hawthorne’s narrative masterfully explores the complexities of human nature. The characters within Merry Mount challenge stereotypes, embodying a multidimensional view of individuals living outside conventional societal norms. The Maypole, a silent yet potent character, symbolizes the thematic clash between individual expression and societal expectations. Its destruction becomes a focal point, marking the culmination of the cultural conflict and the triumph of Puritan values over the unrestrained joy of Merry Mount.

The story serves as a reflection on the enduring tension between personal freedom and societal expectations. Edgar and Edith’s defiance, while momentarily celebrated, ultimately leads to their tragic fate, highlighting the consequences of challenging established norms. The Puritans, despite Endicott’s nuanced understanding, remain bound by the strict moral codes that govern their community.

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” is a rich exploration of morality, human nature, and the consequences of cultural clashes. Hawthorne weaves a narrative that transcends its historical setting, offering a timeless commentary on the complexities of individuality, societal expectations, and the perpetual struggle for freedom within the confines of established norms. The Maypole, with its vibrant symbolism, stands as a testament to the enduring power of human expression and the consequences that befall those who dare to defy the prevailing cultural order.

The Maypole of Merry Mount –  Analysis

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” by Nathaniel Hawthorne is a captivating narrative that delves into the clash between opposing cultures and the complexities of human nature. Set against the backdrop of early colonial New England, the story unfolds as a vivid exploration of morality, individual expression, and the inevitable collision of divergent ideologies.

At the heart of the narrative is the Maypole, a symbol of love, freedom, and uninhibited celebration. Merry Mount, a community that revels in joy and merrymaking, stands in stark contrast to the nearby Puritan settlement, governed by strict moral codes and religious conformity. The Maypole becomes the focal point around which the clash of these contrasting values unfolds.

Edgar and Edith, representing the spirit of love and defiance, choose to marry amidst the festivities of Merry Mount. Their union becomes a symbolic act of rebellion against the Puritans’ stern moral expectations. This theme of individual expression in the face of societal norms runs throughout the narrative, highlighting the tension between personal freedom and the constraints imposed by religious doctrine.

The character of Endicott, the Puritan leader, adds layers of complexity to the story. Initially ordering the destruction of the Maypole, Endicott represents the uncompromising adherence to Puritan values. However, his change of heart introduces a nuanced perspective. Endicott’s decision to spare the Maypole reveals an internal struggle, as he grapples with recognizing the humanity and capacity for love within his rigid beliefs. This inner conflict serves as a commentary on the intricate nature of morality and the potential for individuals to transcend societal expectations.

The Maypole itself emerges as a silent yet potent character, embodying the thematic clash between individual expression and societal norms. Its destruction becomes a pivotal moment, symbolizing the triumph of Puritan values over the unrestrained joy of Merry Mount. This act marks the culmination of the cultural conflict, emphasizing the consequences faced by those who challenge established norms.

The tragic fate of the inhabitants of Merry Mount serves as a poignant commentary on the irreconcilable differences between the two communities. Despite Endicott’s momentary understanding, the Puritans remain bound by the strict moral codes that govern their society. The story reflects the enduring tension between personal freedom and societal expectations, demonstrating the consequences of daring to defy prevailing cultural orders.

Hawthorne’s narrative transcends its historical setting, offering a timeless exploration of the complexities of human nature. The characters within Merry Mount challenge stereotypes, presenting a multidimensional view of individuals living outside conventional societal norms. “The Maypole of Merry Mount” serves as a thought-provoking commentary on the enduring power of human expression and the complexities inherent in navigating the clash between individuality and societal expectations.

The Maypole of Merry Mount –  Theme

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” by Nathaniel Hawthorne explores several themes, reflecting the author’s examination of human nature, morality, and the clash between opposing worldviews. Here are some prominent themes in the story:

  1. Conflict between Freedom and Conformity:
    • The central theme revolves around the conflict between the freedom celebrated at Merry Mount and the strict conformity enforced by the Puritans. The Maypole symbolizes individual expression, joy, and love, contrasting sharply with the Puritans’ rigid moral code. The clash between these two ideals becomes a thematic exploration of the tension between personal liberty and societal constraints.
  2. Morality and Judgment:
    • The story delves into the theme of morality and the subjective nature of judgment. The Puritans, representing a moralistic society, condemn the festivities at Merry Mount as immoral. However, Hawthorne complicates this judgment by portraying the inhabitants of Merry Mount as individuals capable of love and genuine emotions. The theme highlights the ambiguity inherent in moral assessments and challenges rigid moral dichotomies.
  3. The Irony of Love and Strife:
    • Love and strife are interwoven throughout the narrative, creating a thematic tension. The Maypole, a symbol of love and joy, becomes the focal point of strife between the Puritans and the inhabitants of Merry Mount. The irony lies in the fact that the pursuit of love and happiness leads to conflict, illustrating the complexities of human relationships and societal expectations.
  4. Individuality vs. Collective Identity:
    • The theme of individuality versus collective identity is explored through the characters of Edgar and Edith. Their marriage, celebrated for its personal significance, becomes a point of contention between Merry Mount and the Puritans. The story raises questions about the balance between individual freedoms and the expectations of a collective society.
  5. Nature as a Reflection of Human Emotions:
    • Hawthorne uses the natural setting to reflect the emotional states of the characters and the societal atmosphere. The forest, the river, and the Maypole are imbued with symbolic significance. The natural elements serve as a backdrop for the unfolding drama, contributing to the thematic exploration of the relationship between human emotions, the environment, and societal norms.
  6. The Complexity of Human Nature:
    • The characters in “The Maypole of Merry Mount” embody the complexity of human nature. The revelers at Merry Mount, despite their festive and carefree demeanor, experience love, sorrow, and conflict. Hawthorne portrays individuals who defy easy categorization, challenging stereotypes and inviting readers to consider the multidimensional nature of human beings.
  7. Symbolism of the Maypole:
    • The Maypole itself serves as a powerful thematic symbol. While representing love, freedom, and revelry for the inhabitants of Merry Mount, it becomes a focal point of moral conflict with the Puritans. The Maypole encapsulates the broader theme of the clash between opposing values, the struggle for individual expression, and the consequences of challenging societal norms.
  8. The Cycle of Life and Renewal:
    • The story unfolds against the backdrop of seasonal changes, emphasizing the cyclical nature of life. The destruction of the Maypole, while representing a symbolic end, also hints at the potential for renewal. The theme of cyclical change underscores the inevitability of societal shifts and the perpetual tension between conflicting ideologies.

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” explores these themes through Hawthorne’s nuanced characterization, symbolism, and examination of societal dynamics. The narrative invites readers to reflect on the complexities of morality, human nature, and the challenges inherent in reconciling individual freedoms with societal expectations.

The Maypole of Merry Mount – Irony

“The Maypole of Merry Mount” by Nathaniel Hawthorne features several instances of irony, contributing to the complexity of the narrative and the exploration of themes such as morality, human nature, and the clash between opposing ideologies. Here are key examples of irony in the story:

  1. Maypole Symbolism:
    • Irony: The Maypole, a symbol of revelry, love, and freedom, becomes ironic in the context of the Puritan society. While it represents joy and uninhibited celebration for the inhabitants of Merry Mount, it stands in stark contrast to the Puritans’ strict moral code. The irony lies in the Maypole’s role as both a beacon of freedom and a target of Puritan disapproval, highlighting the tension between the two communities.
  2. Endicott’s Change of Heart:
    • Irony: Endicott, the Puritan leader, initially orders the destruction of the Maypole as a symbol of moral decadence. However, the irony arises when he has a change of heart and spares the Maypole, realizing the significance of love and joy. This reversal is ironic given the rigid moral stance of the Puritans, demonstrating the unexpected complexity within Endicott’s character.
  3. The Marriage of Edgar and Edith:
    • Irony: The union between Edgar and Edith, a couple from Merry Mount, is presented ironically. While their marriage is celebrated as an expression of love and joy, it occurs against the backdrop of the Puritans’ disapproval of the Maypole and the festivities. The irony lies in the stark contrast between the joyous occasion and the stern judgment of the Puritans.

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